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Annex 61

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Remote Emission Sensing

Objectives and approach

The objective of this project is to evaluate and propose how remote emission sensing (RES)
can be used - for policy purposes as well as for direct enforcement - to detect high-
emitting/gross-polluting vehicles in real-world traffic. The project will make use of:

  • the on-going efforts in Europe, USA and China to further refine existing as well as develop new RES technologies for contactless and non-intrusive measurements of real-driving emissions on an individual vehicle level, and
  • the large number of past, on-going and planned remote emission sensing measurement
    campaigns in European cities in the coming years, primarily as a direct or indirect consequence of the dieselgate scandal emerging in 2015.

The project will comprise all vehicle categories, i.e. passenger cars, light-duty commercial vehicles, heavy-duty trucks, buses and motorcycles, running on commonly used combustion fuels, i.e. petrol,
diesel and CNG, and designed to meet all adopted legislative emission limits (e.g. Euro 1 - Euro 6). However, special attention will be paid to high-emitting vehicles designed to meet the most recent emission standards, e.g. Euro 6. Target pollutants will be NOX and PM, but also HC and CO will be
included.

The project aims to evaluate and compare the performance and applicability of the following main types of RES technologies to identify high-emitting vehicles (see sketches below):

  1. Conventional RES – this is in practice the technologies that are already offered to the market by commercial providers for emission measurement services.
  2. Point sampling RES – in terms of measurement strategy point sampling RES is quite similar to type conventional RES, but it is still under development, i.e. not yet commercialised, and has its main advantage for measuring PM emissions, both number and mass.

Plume chasing RES – from a measurement strategy perspective rather different to type 1 and 2: Not as many vehicles can be measured per time unit, on the other hand the measurements on each vehicle have a longer duration than in the case of 1 and 2 → more straightforward to pinpoint high-emitters.

Both for the comparison and evaluation of the performance of the different RES technologies and for responding to the project’s objective to come up with proposals on how these can practically be used - for policy purposes as well as for direct enforcement - to combat excess real-world vehicle emissions, the project will make use of existing RES datasets in Europe, China and the US, and new datasets from upcoming RES measurement campaigns in the next few years to come (2020-22). Dataset examples are:

  • The CONOX remote sensing database was originally developed and set-up in 2017 within the CONOX project, an initiative by the Swiss Federal Office of the Environment under the umbrella of ERMES (https://www.ermes-group.eu/). At present (April 2020) the database, now entitled CONOX+, holds data from RES measurements (type 1) on about 1.4 Mio vehicles. The database is hosted by IVL.
  • The H2020-project CARES (https://cares-project.eu/), launched in summer 2019 and running
    until summer 2022, in which three major RES measurement campaigns will be carried out in the cities of Prague, Milan and Krakow. All the three RES types will be applied in these
     measurements, and in addition a dedicated controlled experiment campaign involving all three RES types and PEMS measurements on a small sample of untampered and tampered vehicles will be carried out in June 2020. The CARES project is coordinated by IVL.
  • Similar RES measurement campaigns as in the CARES project in two major cities in China in the framework of a project financed by the Ministry of Science & Technology, with a similar
    objective as and strongly associated with the CARES project (mutual collaboration and exchange of results and experiences).
  • On-going major RES projects in Denmark and Switzerland (task sharing participants in this
    project), and in other countries such as Germany.
  • On-going projects involving PEMS and chassis dynamometer measurements on in-use vehicles in several countries that are task sharing participants in this project.

Activities

The project consists of five work packages:

  • WP 1: Collection and consolidation of existing data
    The data to be collected and consolidated will comprise both RES data and relevant data from legislative and RDE tests (chassis dynamometer and PEMS). The collection and consolidation of data will occur in two steps:
    • Collection and consolidation of existing data at project start (≈October/November 2020).
    • Collection and consolidation of additional data six months before the end of the project (≈October/November 2022).
  • WP 2: Comparison and evaluation of the performance of the different RES technologies
    • Comparison in between different RES technologies.
    • Comparison of RES technologies with PEMS and chassis dynamometer approaches to measure real drive emissions.
  • WP 3: Evaluation and proposal on the use of RES to detect individual high-emitting vehicles for direct enforcement
    This work package pinpoints vehicle owner/driver-imposed impacts on their vehicle’s emission
    performance, such as tampering (use of AdBlue emulators, removal of DPFs, etc.), poor
    maintenance or very harsh driving. The analysis underpinning the evaluation and proposal will be carried out separately for three groups of vehicle categories:
    • Light-duty vehicles (passenger cars and light commercial vehicles)
    • Heavy-duty vehicles (trucks and buses)
    • Two-wheelers

Links will be made to periodical technical inspections (PTI) and roadside inspections.

  • WP 4: Evaluation and proposal on the use of RES for emission legislation and air pollution policy purposes
    This work package pinpoints the ability of different vehicle manufacturers to design vehicles
    (engines and exhaust after-treatment systems) that are compliant and durable as regards real-world emission performance. As for WP 3 the analysis underpinning the evaluation and proposal will be carried out separately for three groups of vehicle categories:
    • Light-duty vehicles (passenger cars and light commercial vehicles)
    • Heavy-duty vehicles (trucks and buses)
    • Two-wheelers

Links will be made to in-use compliance testing programmes.

  • WP 5: Project coordination & management, synthesis, reporting and dissemination
    • Administrative coordination, communication with the IEA AMF, synthesis of the data, compilation of the final report and dissemination of the results.

Expected Results

The general outcome of the project will be an independent comparison and evaluation of the performance of various RES technologies, with a focus on their ability and usefulness to detect excess emitting vehicles for direct enforcement as well as emission legislation and air pollution policy purposes. The project will provide proposals on how RES can be practically applied for these purposes covering
both existing and future in-use fleets. The project will produce a written Final Report, which includes:

  • An “up-to-date” view of the real-world emission performance of European, US and Chinese in-use fleets, demonstrating the impact of current emission legislation on the real-world emissions of different vehicle categories grouped by emission standard, vehicle manufacturers, engine families etc., eventually revealing gaps between on-road emissions and legislative emission limits.
  • A comparison and evaluation of the performance of different RES technologies to accurately measure on-road emissions, and particularly to accurately pinpoint high- or excess-emitting
    vehicles on an individual vehicle level and on vehicle model or engine family level.

Proposals on how RES can be practically used to detect high-emitting vehicles for direct enforcement purposes as well as to monitor real-world emissions for emission legislation and air pollution policy purposes.

Project Duration

May 2020 - May 2023

Participants

   Task Sharing

   Cost Sharing

 

China, Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Switzerland

 

Total Budget

185 000 €  and additional 1 400 000 € indirect funding and 3 000 000 € in data access

Operating Agent

Åke Sjödin
IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute
E-Mail: ake.sjodin@ivl.se